Written by Nikki Henningham, The University of Melbourne
Sociologist Lois Bryson (Marshall, AWAL) was one of Australia's most widely published commentators on social equity issues in the 1980s, particularly in the area of gender inequality. Organised sport in Australia was an area that she found particularly interesting from a sociological perspective. 'I came to an interest in sport', she said in 1991, 'not because I was essentially interested in the sporting enterprise but because I realised just what an important institution sport is … I decided it was essential to develop a feminist perspective on sport if we were really to get a handle on women's position of inequality in society' (Bryson, 1991, 156). Bryson went on to note that, given the historical connections between sport and male domination, we should not be surprised to know that 'sport supports male domination because it was developed … to do just that' (Bryson, 1991, 156). Lying at the heart of her research is the theory that sport is an important and powerful institution in Australian society, one through which 'male hegemony is constructed and reconstructed' (Bryson, 1987, 349). It is vital that we understand these processes and confront them if we are to have any hope at all of establishing gender equity across all Australian social institutions.
Despite twenty-five years of serious attempts by Australian governments to create a more level playing field for women in Australian sport through machinery such as the Sex Discrimination Commission in 1984 and the Women's Sports Promotion Unit as part of the Australian Sports Commission in 1986, it would seem as though not much has changed in Australia. Raewyn Connell (Bryson, AWAL), who coined the term 'hegemonic masculinity', suggested in 2012 that, as organised sport in Australia underwent transformation in the late 20th century from an essentially voluntary and amateur enterprise to a 'radically corporatised' institution, it still remained a site of delivering power and privilege to men, and thus the need to understand how this operates had become even more acute. 'The present forms of sport are among the important ways in which the overall effect of gender inequality is achieved', she noted (Connell, 2012, 178).
Anticipating and illustrating these concerns were some mystifying administrative decisions that served to prove Connell's point. In July 2012, in the lead-up to the Olympic Games in London, it was revealed that, while Basketball Australia flew the men's national basketball business class to London, the women's team was flown economy, with some women paying for their own upgrades. If reward for performance was the deciding factor, this seemed very odd indeed. The women's team was ranked second in the world, having won three silver medals and a bronze in previous tournaments; the men were ranked ninth and had never won a medal. Arguments about the men needing the extra space because they were bigger than the women were unconvincing, too. Liz Cambridge, who paid for her own upgrade, is, at 203cm, taller than Paddy Mills (183cm), who flew business class without having to dip into his own pocket. As Australia's sex discrimination commissioner, Elizabeth Broderick, remarked, 'these are Australia's finest athletes, both male and female, but treated very differently' (Lane, Age, 20 July 2012). Were things any better than in 1990 when the Federal Sex Discrimination Commission complained that sport was 'riddled with sexism' (Cooke, 1990)? Only marginally, Broderick suggested: 'The participation of women in sport at all levels is marked by division and discrimination that is reinforced by negative gender stereotypes. Strict gender segregation marks all levels of sport and elite, professional sport remains the unquestioned domain of men' (Broderick, SMH, 21 May 2010). And, if the Australian media's level of respect for women athletes is any indication, it suggests that journalists and commentators are as much a part of the system of inequity as those who play and administer the sport. At least Sydney radio announcers Alan Jones and John Laws were open in their contempt for women's sport when, in 1991, they dismissed the need for an enquiry into inequity because the superiority of men's sport was 'just the nature of things' and that inequity was 'nothing to do with sex' (Bryson, 1991, 157). In 2009, Associated Press appeared to have no idea of the offence they caused among women by naming two horses in their list of top ten female sportswomen of the year (Broderick, SMH, 21 May 2010).
If, as the research would suggest, domination in the sporting arena continues to play a critical role in the reproduction of gender inequality more broadly, then women who have successfully taken leadership roles as participants, coaches, administrators and reporters are not leaders in a side bar. As they take over the controls of the shredder heading towards the grass ceiling (a term used by both Elizabeth Broderick and Emma Sherry), they may well continue on, crashing through the glass ceiling on their way.
Naming Australia's 20th-century leading women performers in sport is an unenviable task because there are so many of note. Browse the list of names in the Sport Australia Hall of Fame (SAHOF), established in 1985, and one can see that a roll call of inaugural athlete inductees includes a plethora of household names, among them women who are not just legends of world sport but important to Australia's sense of itself as a sporting nation. Of the 125 athletes in this category, 26 were women. There would not have been too many general 'halls of fame' of any public organisation or enterprise in 1985 that offered women 21 per cent of available places. Despite inequity of access to facilities and the media's frequent trivialisation of the excellence of their efforts, Australian women were outstanding performers locally and abroad throughout the 20th century. Beginning with Fanny Durack (King, ADB; Henningham, 'Durack', AWR and She's Game), who battled Australian swimming administrators and early feminists for the right to be the first Australian woman to compete at the Olympic Games in 1912, moving through to Margaret Court (formerly Smith) (Henningham, 'Court', She's Game), whose extraordinary legacy in world tennis includes in 1973 being the first mother to be the number one player in the world, and onto to Louise Sauvage (Lemon, 'Sauvage', She's Game) whose success in Paralympic sport saw her selected as the Australian Insitute of Sport Athlete of the Year in 1997, Australian women athletes have exhibited talent, excellence and professionalism in pursuit of personal best achievements. In so doing, they have been role models for women beyond the sporting arena and were particularly important to girls growing up in the 1940s and 1950s, who found that examples of women's public achievement to which they might aspire were quite thin on the ground. Quentin Bryce, Australia's first woman governor-general (2008-2014), recalls the impact of those 'gutsy young women with extraordinary talent and drive', Olympic athletes Betty Cuthbert (Land, 'Cuthbert', AWR), Shirley Strickland (later de la Hunty) (Heywood, AWR) and Dawn Fraser (Heywood & Henningham, AWR). 'They were modern, successful women', says Bryce, 'and we wanted to be just like them' (Bryce, Boyer Lectures 2013). Indigenous athletes such as tennis player Evonne Cawley (formerly Goolagong) (Francis, AWR) and track and field Olympian Cathy Freeman (Kovacic, AWR) have played a similar role in trailblazing the way for Indigenous women's participation in amateur and élite sport.
For further information about the array of women leaders on the field, please visit the Sport Australian Hall of Fame website or the online exhibition, She's Game: Women Making Australian Sporting History.
While women were 'Athlete Members' of the Sport Australia Hall of Fame from the beginning in 1985, none were inaugurated in the 'General Member' category (which covers administrators, coaches, journalists and others who have contributed significantly to sport beyond the playing field) until 1989, when Deirdre Hyland (SAHOF, 'Hyland'), netball administrator of note throughout the 1970s and 1980s, was inducted. Needless to say, this is more a reflection on the lack of recognition of women who had preceded her than lack of effort or contribution. Eunice Gill (Smart, ADB; Henningham, 'Gill', AWR), for instance, was an All Australian netball player and coach who had a long-term and profound influence on the development of Australian women's sport and sports administration in general. A graduate of the University of Melbourne (BA 1940, Dip. Phys. Ed. 1945), Gill's views on the importance of sport and physical education for women were influenced by another netball player and All Australian coach, Lorna McConchie, who helped to establish the physical education course at the University of Melbourne, and who was one of Gill's teachers at university. Eunice Gill was eventually recognised by the SAHOF in 1995 (SAHOF, 'Gill') but McConchie (Lemon & Henningham, AWR: Victorian Honour Roll, 2004) remains unsung. So does Margaret Pewtress, another netballer and All-Australian coach who went on to have a profound impact as an administrator for Australian women's sport in general when she was appointed a commissioner on the Australian Sports Commission and chair of the Women and Sport Unit within the ASC (Dix, Australian, 23 August 1995). A trip through the SAHOF website reveals a trickle of women in the general category-most frequently women who have worked hard to promote women's sports such as netball, softball and hockey.
Some administrators, like Gill, McConchie and Pewtress in the early 1980s, or Wendy Ey, Libby Darlinson and Heather Reid (Henningham, 'Reid', AWR) in the 1980s and 1990s, had paid positions (normally in government) that permitted them some sort of financial reward for their advocacy. Most, however, have worked in a voluntary capacity. In the late 1920s, lobby groups to promote women's sport began to spring up around Australia, established by young, professional women freshly graduated from university, particularly in Sydney and Melbourne. Margaret Watts (formerly Thorp) (Rutledge, ADB; Land, 'Watts', AWR) and Eleanor Hinder (Foley & Radi, ADB; Carey, AWR), for instance, were two Sydney-based welfare workers who, after the Great War, established and promoted the City Girls' Amateur Sports Association (CGASA) as an extension of their work with the Young Women's Christian Association. They were assisted from the mid-twenties by radio broadcaster Gwendoline Varley (Consandine, ADB; Lemon, 'Varley', AWR; Hennningham, 'Varley', The Women's Pages). Their aim was to create opportunities for women's sport beyond the existing school system. Apart from the opportunity to be active and make friends, involvement in the CGASA taught young women valuable life skills. Watts and Hinder both saw the benefits of sport participation for women as a channel through which women, who had only enjoyed full citizenship rights for a generation, could gain new understandings of teamwork and leadership for application in the community at large. 'Consequent training in group leadership is of fundamental value', Watts observed, 'not only to the individual but to the nation'. 'Women's Health is the Nation's Wealth' was the CGASA motto, anticipating later gender equity arguments about the wastefulness of not utilising 50 per cent of the community's talent by excluding women from leadership positions (Henningham, 'CGASA', She's Game). Present-day advocates, such as Janice Crosswhite (Henningham, 'Crossthwaite', AWR; Henningham, 'Crossthwaite', AWAL), president of the Australian Womensport and Recreation Association (AWRA), continue to be frustrated by the lack of equity that an absence of women from leadership positions in sporting organisations produces. Organisations such as her own run leadership courses and workshops in order to help women with potential into management and executive positions. Just as the CGASA was promoting gender equity measures through sport early in the 20th century, so too is AWRA in the 21st century.
One of the key frustrations of sportswomen and administrators is the lack of media coverage women's sports receive. Arguably, Australian women's sport received more press in the 1920s and 1930s than it does now. In Victoria, there was even a separate monthly newspaper, The Sportswoman, devoted entirely to women's sport and published every month. As women began to administer and control their own organisations in the 1920s and 1930s, they also moved into sports journalism, with writers like Ruth Preddy and Lois Quarrell (Henningham, 'Quarrell', AWR, and She's Game) leading the way. Preddy used the pages of the Australian Women's Weekly to expand coverage, Quarrell covered women's sport in Adelaide for the Advertiser newspaper for forty years, the Sydney Morning Herald had Sydney University student Kathleen Commins, and Gwendoline Varley did some sports reporting for radio stations 2BL in Sydney, then 3AW in Melbourne. These women played a vital role in increasing public awareness of Australian women's sport; they promoted interest and helped to create an audience for women's sporting activities, both on the field and in the news.
Early women sports journalists tended be confined to reporting women's sport. Judy Joy Davies (Henningham, 'Davies', AWR; SAHOF, 'Davies') was one of the first women journalists to break into covering all sports. Whilst her own Olympic and Empire Games career was noteworthy (Davies had a successful swimming career with three Empire and Commonwealth gold medals, Olympic bronze and a world record), it was while plying her subsequent career as a journalist covering sport for thirty-four years that she made her mark. She covered nine Olympics, the first in 1956 for the Argus and the others for the Sun News Pictorial where her reports were also run nationally by the Herald and Weekly Times group; she thus became a truly national sportswriter.
While women journalists were covering women's sport, they experienced very little in the way of discrimination. But, as they attempted to break into areas that were traditionally the preserve of men, they experienced significant resistance. Covering Australian Rules Football (AFL), for instance, is a coveted task in sports journalism in Melbourne, but, until the 1980s, women were excluded because they were not permitted access to changing rooms. Trailblazers like Caroline Wilson (Henningham, 'Wilson', AWR, and The Women's Pages), writing first for the Melbourne Herald and then for the Age, and Angela Pippos (Henningham, 'Pippos', AWAL), reporting sport for ABC television news, were usually the only women present when major AFL stories broke. Through perseverance and resilience, they made it possible for the next generation of female sports reporters who now follow them.
Similarly, while women were rising through the ranks of administration in women's sporting organisations, they received remarkably little attention from men. If, however, they pushed to join the men in leadership positions at male sporting organisations, the attention they received was not always welcome. Beverley Knight (Henningham, 'Knight', AWAL), the first woman board member of an AFL club (Essendon Football Club), Beverley O'Connor, who joined the board at the Melbourne Football Club and Elaine Canty, who was the first and thus far the only women to be a member of the AFL tribunal, were all subject to disparagement and discrimination on various occasions throughout their careers. Their trailblazing, however, opened the door for others to follow. While the flood gates have not exactly been opened to women desiring to take up leadership roles in national sports organisations that have traditionally been the preserve of men, there has been some movement at the top. SAHOF inductee and élite cricket player and administrator Belinda Clark (SAHOF, 'Clark') was appointed manager of Cricket Australia's major junior development academy in Brisbane in 2005. Heather Reid, CEO of Capital Football in Canberra, was the first woman to hold a senior leadership position in football (soccer) when she was appointed in 2004. Kristina Keneally (ex-premier of NSW) (Alafaci, AWR) was appointed Basketball Australia CEO in 2012, the same year that business woman Jacquie Hey broke 107 years of 'tradition' when she joined the board of Cricket Australia.
Other significant appointments of women to leadership roles, such as Moya Dodd to the Executive Committee of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) and Raelene Castle as CEO to National Rugby League team the Canterbury Bulldogs, may suggest that we have come a long way when it comes to recognising Australian sportswomen and their leadership potential on and off the field. Sadly, this is not the case. As the 2012 Australian Census of Women in Leadership shows, compared with the ASX 200 boards, where women account for 12.3 per cent of board members, women members of the governing bodies of most national sporting organisations (except those for administering women's sport or paralympic sport) number somewhere between 4 per cent and 11 per cent. Despite the trailblazing and pioneering work of sportswomen throughout the 20th century, says Johanna Adriaanse, a scholar at the University of Technology, Sydney, 'the quest for gender diversity in sport governance and management has only just begun' (Adiaanse). There is a lot of change to be undertaken before that grass ceiling is truly mown down to a manageable length.
Australian Women's Register Entries
- Carey, Jane, Hinder, Eleanor Mary (1893-1963), The Australian Women's Register, National Foundation for Australian Women, 5 September 2012. http://www.womenaustralia.info/biogs/AWE1041b.htm. Details
- Freeman, Cathy, Born To Run: My Story, Puffin Books, Camberwell, Victoria, 2007. Details
- Stell, Marion K, Half the race : a history of Australian women in sport, PhD Thesis published as a book, Angus & Robertson, North Ryde, New South Wales, 1991. Details
- Bryson, Lois, 'A Place for Women in the Australian Sporting Ethos', in Equity for Women in Sport: Processing of the Joint Seminar of the House of Representatives Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs and the Australian Sports Commission, Australian Sports Commission, 1991, pp. 155 - 161. Details
- Bryson, Lois, 'Sport and the Maintenance of Masculine Hegemony', Women’s Studies International Forum, vol. 10, no. 4, 1987, pp. 349 - 360. Details
- Connell, Raewyn, 'Supremacy and Subversion - Gender Struggles in Sport', Asia-Pacific Journal of Health, Sport and Physical Education, vol. 3, no. 3, November 2012, pp. 177 - 179. Details
- Light, Richard L. and Wedgwood, Nikki, 'Revisting "Sport and the Maintenance of Masculine Hegemony"', Asia-Pacific Journal of Health, Sport and Physical Education, vol. 3, no. 3, November 2012, pp. 181 - 183. Details
- Cooke, Graham, 'Sport Riddled with Sexism Says Bryce', Canberra Times, 21 November 1990, p. 42. Details
- Dix, Noeline, 'Netball Doyen's Goal Was Excellence', The Australian, 23 August 1995. Details
- Bartlett, Andrew; Adams, Judith; Lundy, Kate; Marshall, Gavin; Ronaldson, Michael; Webber, Ruth; and Wortley Dana, About time! Women in sport and recreation in Australia, Environment, Communications, Information Technology and the Arts References Committee, Commonwealth Government of Australia, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, September 2006. http://fulltext.ausport.gov.au/fulltext/2006/abouttime/abouttime.pdf. Details
- Reid, Heather, Mentor as anything! : guidelines for developing and implementing a mentoring program for women in the sport and recreation industry, Robinson, Kim; Australian Sports Commission; and Womensport Australia, Australian Sports Commission, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, 1999. Details
- Henningham, Nikki, Margaret Court, She's Game Women: making Australian sporting history, Australian Women's Archives Project, 2007. http://www.womenaustralia.info/exhib/sg/court.html. Details
- She's Game Women: making Australian sporting history, Australian Women's Archives Project, 2007, http://www.womenaustralia.info/exhib/sg/sport-home.html. Details
- Sport Australia Hall of Fame, Sport Australia Hall of Fame, 2012, http://www.sahof.org.au/. Details
- 'Eunice Gill MBE - Administration - Netball', in Sport Australia Hall of Fame, Sport Australia Hall of Fame, c.2014, http://www.sahof.org.au/hall-of-fame/member-profile/?memberID=280&memberType=athlete. Details
- 'Deirdre Hyland AM - Administration - Netball', in Sport Australia Hall of Fame, Sport Australia Hall of Fame, c.2014, http://www.sahof.org.au/hall-of-fame/member-profile/?memberID=107&memberType=athlete. Details
- 'Judy Davies - Swimming', in Sport Australia Hall of Fame, Sport Australia Hall of Fame, c.2014, http://www.sahof.org.au/hall-of-fame/member-profile/?memberID=548&memberType=athlete. Details
- 'Belinda Clark AM - Cricket', in Sport Australia Hall of Fame, Sport Australia Hall of Fame, c.2014, http://www.sahof.org.au/hall-of-fame/member-profile/?memberID=545&memberType=athlete. Details
- Adriaanse, Johanna, 'Sport Trailing Corporates for Women in Leadership Positions', Women’s Agenda, 12 June 2013, http://www.womensagenda.com.au/talking-about/opinions/sport-trailing-corporates-for-women-in-leadership-positions/201306112300. Details
- Alafaci, Annett, 'Keneally, Kristina Kerscher (1968 - )', in The Australian Women's Register, Australian Women's Archives Project, 11 January 2010, http://www.womenaustralia.info/biogs/AWE1867b.htm. Details
- Australian Government: Equal Opportunity for Women in the Workplace Agency, Australian Census of Women in Leadership, Equal Opportunity for Women in the Workplace Agency, Sydney, New South Wales, 2012, http://www.wgea.gov.au/sites/default/files/2012_CENSUS%20REPORT.pdf. Details
- Broderick, Elizabeth, 'Women in Sport Hit the Grass Ceiling', Sydney Morning Herald, 21 May 2010, http://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/society-and-culture/women-in-sport-hit-the-grass-ceiling-20100520-vnt7.html#ixzz2us72zfR2. Details
- Bryce, Quentin, 'Joining the neighbourhood', in Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC): Radio National: Boyer Lectures, Transcript and audio, Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), 3 November 2013, http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/boyerlectures/joining-the-neighbourhood/4998502. Details
- Consandine, Marion, 'Varley, Gwendoline (1896 - 1975)', in Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University (ANU), c.2006, http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/varley-gwendoline-11913/text21341. Details
- Foley, Meredith and Radi, Heather, 'Hinder, Eleanor Mary (1893 - 1963)', in Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University (ANU), c.2006, http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/hinder-eleanor-mary-6678/text11515. Details
- Francis, Rosemary, 'Cawley, Evonne Fay Goolagong (1951- )', in The Australian Women's Register, Australian Women's Archives Project, 5 September 2012, http://www.womenaustralia.info/biogs/IMP0070b.htm. Details
- Henningham, Nikki, 'City Girls' Amateur Sports Association', in She's Game: Women making Australian sporting history, Australian Women's Archives Project, 2007, http://www.womenaustralia.info/exhib/sg/cgasa.html. Details
- Henningham, Nikki, 'Fanny Durack', in She's Game Women: making Australian sporting history, Australian Women’s Archives Project, 2007, http://www.womenaustralia.info/exhib/sg/durack.html. Details
- Henningham, Nikki, 'Lois Quarell', in She's Game Women: making Australian sporting history, Australian Women’s Archives Project, 2007, http://www.womenaustralia.info/exhib/sg/quarrell.html. Details
- Henningham, Nikki, 'Caroline Wilson', in The Women's Pages: Australian Women and Journalism since 1850, Australian Women’s Archives Project, 2008, http://www.womenaustralia.info/exhib/cal/wilson.html. Details
- Henningham, Nikki, 'Durack, Sarah (Fanny) (1889 - 1956)', in The Australian Women's Register, Australian Women's Archives Project, 5 September 2012, http://www.womenaustralia.info/biogs/AWE2288b.htm. Details
- Henningham, Nikki, 'Crosswhite, Janice', in The Australian Women's Register, Australian Women's Archives Project, 5 September 2012, http://www.womenaustralia.info/biogs/AWE2694b.htm. Details
- Henningham, Nikki, 'Davies, Judy Joy (1928 - )', in The Australian Women's Register, Australian Women's Archives Project, 5 September 2012, http://www.womenaustralia.info/biogs/AWE2434b.htm. Details
- Henningham, Nikki, 'Quarrell, Lois (1915 - 1991)', in The Australian Women's Register, Australian Women's Archives Project, 5 September 2012, http://www.womenaustralia.info/biogs/AWE2205b.htm. Details
- Henningham, Nikki, 'Gill, Eunice Elizabeth Perrott (1918 - 1987)', in The Australian Women's Register, Australian Women's Archives Project, 5 September 2012, http://www.womenaustralia.info/biogs/AWE2238b.htm. Details
- Henningham, Nikki, 'Wilson, Caroline (1960 - )', in The Australian Women's Register, Australian Women's Archives Project, 5 September 2012, http://www.womenaustralia.info/biogs/AWE3777b.htm. Details
- Henningham, Nikki, 'Reid, Heather', in The Australian Women's Register, Australian Women's Archives Project, 5 March 2013, http://www.womenaustralia.info/biogs/AWE4905b.htm. Details
- Heywood, Anne, 'de la Hunty, Shirley Barbara (1925 - 2004)', in The Australian Women's Register, Australian Women's Archives Project, 5 September 2012, http://www.womenaustralia.info/biogs/IMP0186b.htm. Details
- Heywood, Anne and Henningham, Nikki, 'Fraser, Dawn (1937 - )', in The Australian Women's Register, Australian Women's Archives Project, 5 September 2012, http://www.womenaustralia.info/biogs/IMP0178b.htm. Details
- King, Helen, 'Durack, Sarah (Fanny) (1889 - 1956)', in Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University (ANU), c.2006, http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/durack-sarah-fanny-6063/text10375. Details
- Land, Clare, 'Cuthbert, Betty (1938 - )', in The Australian Women's Register, Australian Women's Archives Project, 5 September 2012, http://www.womenaustralia.info/biogs/IMP0122b.htm. Details
- Land, Clare, 'Watts, Margaret Sturge (1892 - 1978)', in The Australian Women's Register, Australian Women's Archives Project, 5 September 2012, http://www.womenaustralia.info/biogs/IMP0127b.htm. Details
- Lane, Samantha, 'Female Stars Relegated to the Underclass', Age, 20 July 2012, http://www.theage.com.au/olympics/news-london-2012/female-stars-relegated-to-the-underclass-20120719-22d9x.html. Details
- Lemon, Barbara, 'Alix Louise Sauvage OAM', in She's Game Women: making Australian sporting history, Australian Women’s Archives Project, 2007, http://www.womenaustralia.info/exhib/sg/sauvage.html. Details
- Lemon, Barbara, 'Varley, Gwendoline (1896 - 1975)', in The Australian Women's Register, Australian Women's Archives Project, 5 September 2012, http://www.womenaustralia.info/biogs/AWE2228b.htm. Details
- Lemon, Barbara and Henningham Nikki, 'McConchie, Lorna (1914 - 2001)', in The Australian Women's Register, Australian Women's Archives Project, 5 September 2012, http://www.womenaustralia.info/biogs/AWE2269b.htm. Details
- Morrell, Elle, 'Whitlam, Margaret Elaine (1919 - 2012)', in The Australian Women's Register, Australian Women's Archives Project, 19 March 2012, http://www.womenaustralia.info/biogs/AWE0100b.htm. Details
- Rutledge, Martha, 'Watts, Margaret Sturge (1892-1978)', in Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University (ANU), c.2006, http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/watts-margaret-sturge-11984. Details
- Sherry, Emma, 'Opinion: Is There a 'grass-ceiling' for female leaders in Australian sport?', Sports Business Insider, 28 June 2012, http://sportsbusinessinsider.com.au/news/category/financial-and-governance/opinion-is-there-a-grass-ceiling-for-female-leaders-in-australian-sport/. Details
- Sloan, Alex, 'Canberra Close Up: Heather Reid', in Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC): 666 Canberra, Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), 3 April 2013, http://www.abc.net.au/local/stories/2013/04/03/3734622.htm. Details
- Smart, Judith, 'Gill, Eunice Elizabeth Perrott (1918 - 1987)', in Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University (ANU), c.2012, http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/gill-eunice-elizabeth-perrott-12539/text22569. Details
- Victorian Government: Department of Victorian Communities: Office for Women's Policy, Lorna McConchie, Victorian Honour Roll of Women 2004, Government of Victoria: Department of Victorian Communities: Office for Women's Policy, March 2003, 16 pp, http://www.dhs.vic.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/643903/Victorian-Honour-Roll-of-Women-2004-commemorative-booklet.pdf. Details
- Women AFL reporters talk about sexual discrimination
- Audio Visual
- National Film and Sound Archive
- Joan Kirner and Elaine Canty on the importance of women to AFL
- Audio Visual
- National Film and Sound Archive
- Joining the neighbourhood
- 3 November 2013
- Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC)